What is antibiotic resistance? 

Antibiotic resistance, is defined as the ability of a bacterium to become insensitive to the action of one or more antibiotics.

This phenomenon is the result of repeated exposure to antibiotics. When many bacteria survive more than one class of antibiotic, it is called multidrug resistance. It calls into question the effectiveness of available treatments and can represent a threat to human and animal health.  Antibiotic resistance is a global concern

Antibiotic resistant bacteria  

Antibiotic resistant bacteria are therefore a public health issue. In health establishments, the most frequently encountered resistant bacteria are Staphylococcus aureus and enterobacteria, which are responsible for serious nosocomial infections. They have been the subject of a surveillance and prevention programme since the 1990s. 

In the city, antibiotic resistance is also observed, particularly in pneumococci (Streptococcus pneumoniae). 


How does antibiotic resistance develop? 

Bacteria can escape the action of an antibiotic due to a genetic mutation, either spontaneous or encouraged by exposure to antibiotics. The resistance is then written into its genes. As the bacteria multiply, they will pass on their antibiotic resistance to subsequent generations of bacteria through replication. 

More often, resistance mechanisms are passed on through DNA from one bacterium to another. It is through this mechanism that a resistance that appears in a bacterium in the environment or that infects an animal can be transmitted to a bacterium that infects humans. 

How to prevent antibiotic resistance

The WHO has published recommendations on how to limit antibiotic resistance. 


At the individual level:  


  • Ensure that medicines are only used if prescribed by a qualified health professional; 
  • Do not get antibiotics if a health professional tells you that you do not need them; 
  • Follow the health professional’s advice when using antibiotics;
  • Prevent infections by washing your hands regularly, following good hygiene rules when preparing food, avoiding close contact with sick people, practising safe sex and keeping your vaccinations up to date; 
  • Follow a healthier diet (separate raw and cooked foods, cook them well, keep them at an adequate temperature) and choose foods, especially farmed products, that are free of antibiotics. 

Health professionals:  

  • Ensure clean hands, instruments and environment; 
  • Prescribe and dispense antibiotics only when necessary, in accordance with current guidelines; 
  • Report antibiotic-resistant infections to surveillance teams; 
  • Talk to their patients about infection prevention (for example, through vaccination, hand washing, safer sex, or covering the mouth and nose when sneezing). 

The health care sector:

  • Invest in research and development of new antibiotics, vaccines, diagnostics and other tools. 

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It is derived from natural polymers, making it biocompatible, and is applicable to all types of surfaces. These nano/microscopic coatings can protect medical devices from bacterial infection, including antibiotic-resistant strains, without affecting their primary function.
While antibiotic resistance is a well-studied phenomenon in humans and animals, it can also be caused by the release of antibiotics intoterrestrial and aquatic environments. These nano/microscopic coatings can protect medical devices from bacterial infection, including antibiotic-resistant strains, without affecting their primary function.

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